The Essential Hirschman by Sen Amartya Hirschman Albert O. Rothschild Emma Adelman Jeremy

The Essential Hirschman by Sen Amartya Hirschman Albert O. Rothschild Emma Adelman Jeremy

Author:Sen, Amartya, Hirschman, Albert O., Rothschild, Emma, Adelman, Jeremy
Language: eng
Format: epub
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Published: 2013-07-11T16:00:00+00:00

Notes

Reprinted from Economic Development and Cultural Change 25 (Supplement 1977): 67–98, by permission of the University of Chicago Press. © 1977 by the University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

1. Paul A. Samuelson, “International Trade and the Equalization of Factor Prices,” Economic Journal 58 (June 1948): 163–84, and “International Factor-Price Equalisation Once Again,” ibid., 59 (June 1949): 181–97.

2. Paul A. Baran, “On the Political Economy of Backwardness,” Manchester School of Economics and Social Studies 20 (January 1952): 66–84.

3. Walter Galenson and Harvey Leibenstein, “Investment Criteria, Productivity and Economic Development,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 69 (August 1955): 343–70; Robert E. Baldwin, “Patterns of Development in Newly Settled Regions,” Manchester School of Economics and Social Studies 24 (May 1956): 161–79.

4. For an exploration of similar “extra” pressures in the area of technological change, see Nathan Rosenberg, “The Direction of Technological Change; Inducement Mechanisms and Focusing Devices,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 18 (October 1969): 1–24.

5. See my Strategy of Economic Development (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1958), Chapter 6. The first rough outline of the idea is in a paper written in 1954 and republished as Chapter 1 in A Bias for Hope: Essays on Development and Latin America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1971), pp. 59–61.

6. Werner Baer and Isaac Kerstenetzky, “Import Substitution and Industrialization in Brazil,” American Economic Review 54 (May 1964): 411–25; Pan A. Yotopoulos and Jeffrey B. Nugent, “A Balanced Growth Version of the Linkage Hypothesis,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 87 (May 1973): 157–72. The latter article has led to a regular symposium on linkage effect measurement, with contributions by Prem S. Laumas, Michel Boucher, James Riedel, Leroy P. Jones, and a reply by Yotopoulos and Nugent in Quarterly Journal of Economics 90 (May 1976): 308–43. The paper by Jones is particularly noteworthy for solving, at last, the problem of how to measure total (direct and indirect) forward linkage effects.

7. Albert Fishlow, American Railroads and the Transformation of the Ante-Bellum Economy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965); Judith Tendler, Electric Power in Brazil: Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968); Michael Roerner, Fishing for Growth: Export-led Development in Peru, 1950–1967 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970); Scott R. Pearson, Petroleum and the Nigerian Economy (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1970). See also Richard Weisskoff and Edward Wolff, “Linkages and Leakages: Industrial Tracking in an Enclave Economy,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 25 (July 1977): 607–28.

8. By Melville H. Watkins in his well-known paper, “A Staple Theory of Economic Growth,” Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 29 (May 1963): 141–58. In Chapter 7 of Strategy, I had described the same phenomenon—the “swallowing up” through industrialization of successive categories of expanding imports in the course of export-led growth—but had not characterized it as a linkage.

9. Staffan B. Linder, Trade and Trade Policy for Development (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1967), pp. 143–49 and 171–72; Stephen H. Hymer and Stephen A. Resnick, “A Model of an Agrarian Economy with Non-agricultural Activities,” American Economic Review 59 (September 1969): 493–506; Stephen A.



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